- Macdonald, Sir John Alexander
- (1815-1891)H Attends Charlottetown Conference, 1864, and proposes union of all the provinces, 178; premier of first Dominion Cabinet, 198; Tupper writes him as to Howe's political plans, 207; Tilley and Tupper urge him to visit Nova Scotia, 209; visits Halifax with Sir Georges Cartier, Peter Mitchell, and William Macdougall, 210; Acadian Recorder suggests violence, 210; Howe denounces the suggestion, 210-212; arrives in Halifax, and guest of Sir Hastings Doyle, 213; meets Howe, 213; appears before committee of Legislature, 213-214; urges Howe to put an end to the agitation for repeal of the union, 215-218; persuades Howe to enter Dominion Cabinet, 225; his public letters, 257; contrasted with Howe, 287; correspondence with Howe on Pacific Railway policy, 299-300. R His University Bill, 1847--its terms, 155-157; withdrawn, 156; referred to, 161; amends Separate School Bill, 231; supports Ryerson's stand as to separate schools, 233. D And the Pacific Scandal, 321. C His alliance with Cartier, 31, 33; his first appearance in Parliament as an uncompromising Tory, 31; opposed to La Fontaine, 32; votes against settlement of Seigniorial Tenure, 32; opposes Indemnity Bill, 32; and the Pacific Scandal, 53; his resignation, 53; at Quebec Conference--favours legislative union of provinces, 57; defends proposed constitution, 59-60; forms first Dominion administration, 67; resists demand for disallowance of New Brunswick Act abolishing separate schools, 74; sympathizes with Roman Catholic minority, 76; presents Militia Bill, 1862, 87; helps Cartier to establish political union, 100; freedom from racial or religious prejudice, 100; his qualities, 101-102; strained relations with Cartier, 102-103; Cartier's knowledge of service to, 111; receives knighthood, 124, 129; explains Wolseley's quarrel with Cartier, 130. E Becomes receiver-general in Sherwood ministry, 43; his statesmanlike qualities, 43-44; re-elected, 1848, 50; his political sagacity, 110; rivalry with George Brown, 114; on provincial representation, 118; on the dissolution of Parliament in 1853, 127; on the Representation Bill, 132, 133; Liberal-Conservative party owed its birth to his inspiration, 137; persuades Sir Allan MacNab to agree to coalition government, 139, 141; attorney-general in MacNab-Morin ministry, 140; his views on Clergy Reserves, 163; takes charge of bill for secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 168; Hincks enters his ministry, 223; one of the builders of the British Empire--honours conferred upon him, 225; monuments erected to his memory, 226. B Relations with George Brown, x; leads his party, 42; frames bill for settlement of Clergy Reserves, 60; reveals political sagacity, 69; on the character of the union, 82; bitter relations with George Brown, 87-91; offers seat in Cabinet to John Sandfield Macdonald, 100; the "Double Shuffle," 107-108; moves want of confidence in Sandfield Macdonald government, 1863, 146; Brown's motion for constitutional changes, 1864, takes him by surprise, 150; his account of negotiations between George Brown and government as to Confederation, 151, 154-156; his connection with, 152,. 154-155; announces agreement, 153, 160; favours nominative Senate, 164; describes new constitution, in Confederation debate, 170-171; announces in Parliament decision of government to carry Confederation at once and send mission to England, 182; explains intentions of government, 183; on defence of Canada, 183, 184-185; goes to England, 186; relations with George Brown, 189-192; asked to form government, 1865, 189; interview with Brown, 189-191; his proposal that Belleau be premier accepted by Brown, 191; virtual leader of government, 191; charged with using Brown as a stepping-stone to his own political ambition, 199; benefits by Brown's entry into ministry, 199, 200; Holton describes his path as "studded all along by the gravestones of his slaughtered colleagues," 201; on friendly terms with Holton, 202; his essential conservatism, 202; relations with Macdougall and Howland, 202, 209; with Joseph Howe, 203-206, 210; his ideal of a legislative union, 207; anomalous position of his Liberal colleagues, 209-210; his government overthrown, 210, 235. BL Co-operates in founding United Empire Association, 228; elected in 1844, 252; enters ministry as receiver-general, 276; re-elected, 279; offers Baldwin chief-justiceship of Common Pleas, 357; Hincks in his Cabinet, 359. Md Assigned foremost place among Canadian statesmen, i; national recognition of his services after his death by creation of peerage for his widow, i; memorial tablet in St. Paul's Cathedral, and statues in Canadian cities, i; his personal popularity, i-ii; his personality made Confederation possible, ii; Canada's debt to him, iii-iv; his birth and ancestry, 1; brought to Canada in 1820, 1; boyhood days at Kingston and on the Bay of Quinté, 2; his debt to his mother, her strong personality, 2; educated at Kingston Grammar School, 3; Mowat's tribute, 3; studies law, 4-5; called to the bar, 1836, 5; begins practice at age of twenty-one, 5; Oliver Mowat and Alexander Campbell students in his office, 6; called out as a volunteer in Rebellion of 1837, 7; defends Schoultz and Ashley, 8-9; his first visit to England, 1842, 9; takes Alexander Campbell into partnership, 9; elected alderman for Kingston, 10; marries his cousin, Miss Isabella Clark, Sept. 1, 1843, 10; their children, 10; enters public life, 1854, as member for Kingston, 11-12; his firm belief from the beginning that Canada's prosperity depended on permanent connection with the mother country, 12; impelling motives of his long public career, 13; unsettled problems in 1844, 13-14; Confederation movement, 14; difficulties of his position, 15-16; his election address, 23; takes little part in discussions during his first session, 25; Draper recommends him for position of commissioner of crown lands, 26; had no sympathy with political creed of Family Compact, 27; becomes receiver-general, 27; his views on university endowment, 28-29; Alexander Campbell's letter to, 31; opposes Rebellion Losses Bill, 36; refuses to join the annexation movement, 40; strong supporter of British American League, 40; acts as moderating force in conflict over Rebellion Losses Bill, 42, 43; his character contrasted with George Brown's, 53, 54; conceives idea of Liberal-Conservative party, 62, 63; appointed attorney-general for Upper Canada, 63; introduces bill for secularization of Clergy Reserves, 65; Pope's pen-portrait of his appearance and character, 73; supports measure proposing to make Legislative Council elective, 75; has no desire and makes no effort to hasten Sir Allan MacNab's resignation, though circumstances force him into leadership, 76-77; resigns from the MacNab-Taché ministry, 78; reasons for resignation, 79, 80; forms an administration with Taché, May 24, 1856, 80; his quarrel with George Brown, 80-81; challenged by Colonel Rankin, 81-82; his views on the separate school system, 82; on the resignation of Taché, forms an administration with Cartier, 83; becomes premier of the province of Canada on Nov. 26, 1857, 83; dissolves House and appeals to people on questions of separate schools and representation by population, 84; makes proposition to Sandfield Macdonald, which is rejected, 84, 85; forms administration with Cartier as premier, 86; the "Double Shuffle," 86, 87; becomes less opposed to representation by population, 89; forms administration with Sir E. P. Taché, which lasts only a few weeks, 90; buries the hatchet and forms coalition with Brown to work for Confederation, 93, 100-102; anticipates results of Confederation, 103; attends Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences, 104-114; though strongly in favour of legislative union, modifies his views after discussion at Quebec Conference, and accepts scheme of a federal union, 107-108, 245; introduces in Parliament the resolutions adopted at Quebec Conference, 118, 119; one of commissioners to British government in regard to Confederation, 120; upon death of Taché, is called upon to form a ministry, but Brown refusing to act with him, or with Cartier, they sit together under the nominal presidency of Sir Narcisse Belleau, 122, 123; his answer to Lord Monck on delay in Confederation, 124; his wariness and skill in presenting Confederation resolutions, 126, 127; made a K. C. B. in recognition of his services in Confederation negotiations, 128, 267, 344; first prime minister of Dominion of Canada, 131; his second marriage, 131; granted a special audience by the queen, 132; returns to Canada, 132; difficulties in formation of first Dominion Cabinet, 133; list of members, 134-135; his party adopts name of Liberal-Conservative, 138; seeks able colleagues, 139, 140; results of first Dominion election, 141; sends Tupper to oppose Howe and his movement for repeal, 143; visits Halifax for purpose of winning Howe over to Confederation, 144; Howe persuaded to enter Dominion Cabinet, 145; acts passed by first Dominion Parliament, 151; on verge of ministerial crisis over Intercolonial Railway, 153, 154; his desire to annex North-West Territories, 156; difficulties in accomplishing it, 157-163; introduces bill for establishment and government of province of Manitoba, 161; taken seriously ill, 161; returns to Ottawa, 163; goes to Washington as member of commission, 163, 165, 169; his reluctance to become a member of the commission, 171-173; objects to any permanent sale of the fisheries, 174-175; his connection with, and reasons for withdrawal of Fenian Raid claims, 175-178; on decision in San Juan boundary dispute, 179-181; on the fisheries question, 182-184; signs Washington Treaty, 185; moves ratification of certain clauses of Washington Treaty, 186-190; general election of 1872, 193 et seq.; the "Pacific Scandal," 200 et seq.; his defence, 208, 209; sends in his resignation, 210; leads opposition, 211; his resolution in favour of a national policy, 217, 225; puts the new policy before the country, 220-223; urges preferential trade with mother country, 227; again in power, 1878, 228; inaugurates the national policy and reverts to transcontinental railway scheme, 234; crosses continent on Canadian Pacific Railway, 238; firm in his conviction that Riel should be hanged, 243, 244, 280; brings Letellier difficulty before Parliament, 248-250; Ontario boundary dispute, 254-258; introduces Franchise Act of 1885, 258-260; country's devotion to, 262, 263; qualities which maintained loyalty and devotion of his followers, 263-265; Confederation honours cause a break in his friendship with Cartier, 267, 268; introduces bill to adjust representation in House of Commons, 273; election of 1882, 273-276; resolutions on home rule in Ireland, 277; contrasted with Blake, 277-279; election of 1887, 279-283; adoption of jubilee address to queen, 283; compromises with Canadian Pacific Railway over their monopoly of transportation, 285; takes a constitutional stand on Jesuits' Estates Act, 289; commercial union policy, 291 et seq.; contemplates a general election, 300-302; takes steps to renew commercial intercourse with United States, 303; his last appeal to electors of Dominion, 304-311; makes the most of contents of Farrer pamphlet, 313-314; throws himself with energy into election campaign of 1891, 314; for fourth time his government is sustained, 315; receives a chill while attending demonstration at Napanee, 319; attends opening of the session, 320; suffers a slight stroke of paralysis, 320; his last appearance in the House, 320; suffers a final stroke on May 29, 1891, 321; and dies on June 6, 1891, 321; funeral, 321, 322; tribute from Queen Victoria, 322; memorial service in Westminster Abbey, and tablet to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral, 322-323; a summing up of his work and influence, 333-353; a practical politician, 333-336; his political methods, 335-338; his personal magnetism, 339; anecdotes of, 340-341; not an orator, but an effective debater, 341-342; proposed preferential trade in 1879, 342; in favour of Imperial federation, 343; letter to, from Cecil Rhodes, 349; kept in touch with Imperial affairs, 344; Imperial honours bestowed on, 344-345; a self-made man, 345; tributes to his statesmanship, 346; his sympathy with French-Canadians, 347-348; a peacemaker, 348; Lord Dufferin on, 348-349; a poor man, 349-350; sum raised for, in 1870, 351; statues to, in many Canadian cities, 351; his greatness and shortcomings, 351-353. T At Charlottetown Conference, 74, 75; at Quebec Conference, 76, 78; at Westminster Conference, 121; presented to the Queen, 124; forms first Dominion ministry, 127-128, 129; forms second ministry, 136; his national policy, 137.Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John Alexander Macdonald; Macpherson, Life of Macdonald; Collins, Life and Times of Macdonald; Adam, Life and Career of Macdonald; Hopkins, Life of Macdonald; Biggar, Anecdotal Life of Macdonald; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Cyc. Am. Biog.
The makers of Canada. 2014.